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Pituitary gland

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Pituitary gland

Located on the base of theВ brain, the pituitary glandular is safeguarded by a bony structure named theВ sella turcicaВ of theВ sphenoidВ bone. |

Typical sagittal throughout the hypophysis of the adult monkey. Semidiagrammatic. | Latin| hypophysis, glandula pituitaria

Gray's| subject matter #275 1275

Artery| superior hypophyseal artery, infundibular artery, prechiasmal artery, В inferior hypophyseal artery, В capsular artery, В artery of the inferior commodious sinus[1]| Precursor| neural and oralВ ectoderm, includingВ Rathke's pouch| MeSH| Pituitary+Gland

Dorlands/Elsevier| Pituitary gland

InВ vertebrateВ anatomyВ theВ pituitary glandular, orВ hypophysis, is definitely anВ endocrine glandВ about the size of a pea and weighing 0. 5 grms (0. 018В oz) in individuals. It is not part of the brain. This can be a protrusion from the bottom of theВ hypothalamusВ at the base of theВ brain, and sets in a small, bony cavity (sella turcica) covered by aВ duralВ fold (diaphragma sellae). The pituitary is usually functionally attached to theВ hypothalamusВ by theВ median eminenceВ via a little tube called the infundibular stem (Pituitary stalk). The pituitary depressione, in which the pituitary gland sits, is situated in theВ sphenoidВ bone in theВ middle cranial fossaВ at the base of the head. The pituitary gland creates nineВ hormonesВ that regulateВ homeostasis. ContentsВ В[hide]В 5. 1В Anatomy 2. 2В Embryology 2. 2 . 1В Anterior * installment payments on your 2В Posterior * 2 . 3В Intermediate lobe 5. 3В Functions 5. 4В Diseases involving the pituitary sweat gland * 5В Additional images 2. 6В See as well * 7В References * 8В External links| -------------------------------------------------

[edit]Anatomy

The pituitary glandular is a pea-sized gland that sits in a protective bony enclosure called theВ sella turcica. It is composed of three lobes: В anterior, intermediate, andВ posterior. In many family pets, these 3 lobes are distinct. However , in humans, the intermediate lobe can be but a couple of cell layers thick and indistinct; consequently, it is often considered part of the preliminar pituitary. In all animals, the fleshy, glandular anterior pituitary is distinctive from the neural composition of theВ posterior pituitary. It is theВ diencephalon -------------------------------------------------

[edit]Embryology

[edit]Preliminar

Main document: В Anterior pituitary

The informe pituitary arises from anВ invaginationВ of the oralВ ectodermВ and formsВ Rathke's pouch. This kind of contrasts with theВ posterior pituitary, which originates fromВ neuroectoderm. The anterior pituitary synthesizes and secretes this important endocrine hormones: Somatotrophins:

5. Growth hormoneВ (also referred to as 'Human Growth Hormone', 'HGH' or perhaps 'GH' or somatotropin), produced under influence of hypothalamic Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone (GHRH); inhibited simply by hypothalamic Somatostatin Thyrotrophins:

* Thyroid-stimulating hormoneВ (TSH), released under influence of hypothalamic Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH) Corticotropins:

* Adrenocorticotropic hormoneВ (ACTH), produced under influence of hypothalamic Corticotropin-Releasing Body hormone (CRH) 2. Beta-endorphin, released under influence of hypothalamic Corticotropin-Releasing Body hormone (CRH)[2] Lactotrophins:

5. ProlactinВ (PRL), also called 'Luteotropic' hormone (LTH), whose release can be inconsistently activated by hypothalamic TRH, oxytocin, vasopressin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, angiotensin II, neuropeptide Y, galanin, material P, bombesin-like peptides (gastrin-releasing peptide, neuromedin B and C), and neurotensin, and inhibited by hypothalamic dopamine.[3] Gonadotropins:

* Luteinizing hormoneВ (also referred to as 'Lutropin' or 'LH' or perhaps, in guys, 'Interstitial Cell-Stimulating Hormone' (ICSH)) * Follicle-stimulating hormoneВ (FSH), equally released underneath influence of Gonadotropin-Releasing Junk (GnRH) Melanotrophins

* Melanocyte–stimulating...

References: 1 ) ^ Gibo They would, Hokama Meters, Kyoshima T, Kobayashi S (1993). "[Arteries to the pituitary]".  Nippon Rinsho 51 (10): 2550–4.  PMID 8254920.

2 . ^В Knepel W, Homolka L, Vlaskovska M, Nutto D. (1984). Stimulation of adrenocorticotropin/beta-endorphin launch by man made ovine corticotropin-releasing factor in vitro. Enhancement simply by various vasopressin analogs. Neuroendocrinology. 38(5): 344-50.

3. ^В Shlomo Melmed (3 December 2010). В The pituitary. Academic Press. p. В 40. В ISBNВ 978-0-12-380926-1.

5. ^ Boron, Walter F.; Boulpaep, Emile M. (2009).  Medical Physiology (2nd ed. ed. ). Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier. pp.  1016–1017.  ISBN 978-1-4160-3115-4.

5. ^ a b c d Romer, Alfred Sherwood; Parsons, Jones S. (1977).  The Vertebrate Body. Philadelphia, PA: Holt-Saunders International. pp.  549–550.  ISBN 0-03-910284-X.

6. ^ Wells, M. M.; Wells, M. (1969). " Pituitary Analogue in the Octopus".  Nature 222 (5190): 293–294.  doi: 10. 1038/222293a0.

[show] * vВ * tВ * eHuman anatomy, В endocrine system: В endocrine glandsВ (TA A11, В TH H3. 08, В GA 11. 1269)

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