CHANGES IN TRANSLATION
twelve. 1 . The idea of conversions in translation
10. installment payments on your Grammatical changes in translation
10. a few. Lexical and semantic changes in translation 10. 1 . The notion of transformations in translation
Translation is a great informational procedure, which means that ubersetzungsprogramm should give information transmitted as totally as possible. Yet , this can be achieved only if specific structural and semantic alterations are presented. These improvements, which are brought on by lexical and grammatical differences between dialects (and generally - by differences involving the respective cultures), are called conversions in translation. Grammatical transformations in translation
Most copy writers on the subject distinguish between the following grammatical transformations in translation: 1 ) Transposition is actually a change in the order of words in phrases and sentences, which can be often caused by the strength differences in expressing the topic and the rheme in different different languages. E. g.: A girl moved into the room вЂ“ РЈ РєС–РјРЅР°С‚Сѓ СѓРІС–Р№С€Р»Р° РґС–РІС‡РёРЅР°. An old person was sitting down by the aspect of the road вЂ“ Р‘С–Р»СЏ РєСЂР°СЋ РґРѕСЂРѕРіРё СЃРёРґС–РІ СЃС‚Р°СЂРёР№. 2 . Grammatical replacement can be substitution in the word owned by one part of speech with a word owned by another element of speech (morphological replacement) or substitution of one syntactical construction by another one (syntactical replacement). E. g.: He is a great runner - Bin РіР°СЂРЅРѕ Р±С–РіР°С”.
I could see her standing up there вЂ“ РЇ Р±Р°С‡РёРІ, С‰Рѕ РІРѕРЅР° С‚Р°Рј СЃС‚РѕСЏР»Р°. The Times wrote editorially (... ) вЂ“ РЈ РїРµСЂРµРґРѕРІС–Р№ СЃС‚Р°С‚С‚С– РіР°Р·РµС‚Р° РўР°Р№РјСЃ РїРёСЃР°Р»Р°.. 3. Addition is used to compensate for semantic or grammatical losses and frequently accompanies changement and grammatical replacement. Elizabeth. g.: His wife have been beautiful вЂ“ Р™РѕРіРѕ РґСЂСѓР¶РёРЅР° РєРѕР»РёСЃСЊ( Р°Р±Рѕ Сѓ РјРѕР»РѕРґРѕСЃС‚С–) Р±СѓР»Р° РєСЂР°СЃСѓРЅРµСЋ. workers of most industries вЂ“ СЂРѕР±С–С‚РЅРёРєРё СѓСЃС–С… РіР°Р»СѓР·РµР№. four. Omission is known as a transformation opposing to addition and is combined with the aim to stop redundant data. E. g.: the right to rest and leisure вЂ“ РїСЂР°РІРѕ РЅР° РІС–РґРїРѕС‡РёРЅРѕРє. equality in trade and commerce вЂ“ СЂС–РІРЅС– РїСЂР°РІР° Сѓ РіР°Р»СѓР·С– С‚РѕСЂРіС–РІР»С– (... ) regardless of age, education, knowledge or history вЂ“ РЅРµР·Р°Р»РµР¶РЅРѕ РІС–Рґ РІС–РєСѓ, РѕСЃРІС–С‚Рё С‚Р° РґРѕСЃРІС–РґСѓ СЂРѕР±РѕС‚Рё. 10, several. Lexical and semantic conversions in translation The transformations listed below have been completely labelled while lexical and semantic since lexical adjustments often are caused by the need to conform the meaning towards the semantic peculiarities of the focus on culture. The majority of the writers about them single out the next transformations on this kind: 1 . Generalization of meanings, which can be substitution from the source language words (phrases) of a narrow meaning by the target terminology words (phrases) of a genera] (broader) meaning. E. g.: My baby is 18 months - РњРѕС—Р№ РґРёС‚РёРЅС– РїС–РІС‚РѕСЂР° СЂРѕРєСѓ. This car costs 17 hundred pounds - Р¦СЏ РјР°С€РёРЅР° РєРѕС€С‚СѓС” С‚РёСЃСЏС‡Сѓ СЃС–РјСЃРѕС‚ С„СѓРЅС‚С–РІ; The soldiers walked in the ankle-deep dust -- РЎРѕР»РґР°С‚Рё Р№С€Р»Рё no РєРѕР»С–РЅРѕ Сѓ РїРёР»СЋС†С–; wrist watch- РЅР°СЂСѓС‡РЅРёР№ РіРѕРґРёРЅРЅРёРє.
installment payments on your Differentiation of meanings is caused by the simple fact that many English language words with broad semantics do not have direct equivalents in Ukrainian. In such instances dictionaries offer a number of symbolism that only somewhat cover the meaning of the origin language word and translators have to choose one of the variants, which fits the circumstance best of all. Therefore affection may be rendered because С‰РёСЂРѕСЃРµСЂРґСЏ biit not essential as Р»СЋР±РѕРІ, РїСЂРёС…РёР»СЊРЅС–СЃС‚СЊ, СЃРёРјРїР°С‚С–СЏ; challenge - as РїСЂРѕР±Р»РµРјР°, РЅР°РіР°Р»СЊРЅРµ Р·Р°РІРґР°РЅРЅСЏ (РїРёС‚Р°РЅРЅСЏ) but not only while РІРёРєР»РёРє', lasting - since Р±РµР·РїРµСЂРµСЂРІРЅРёР№, РЅРµРїРѕС…РёС‚РЅРёР№, РїСЂРёРґР°С‚РЅРёР№; РѕР±РіСЂСѓРЅС‚РѕРІР°РЅРёР№, РѕСЃС‚Р°С‚РѕС‡РЅРѕ РІРёР·РЅР°С‡РµРЅРёР№ but not simply as as СЃС‚Р°Р»РёР№, СѓСЃС‚Р°Р»РµРЅРёР№, СЃС‚С–Р№РєРёР№, etc . 2 . Concretization (substantiation) of meanings is usually substitution of thesoГ№rce vocabulary words (phrases) with a generic meaning by the target vocabulary words (phrases) with a more specific (narrow) meaning. Concretization is often combined with differentiation. E. g.: Run for the obama administration -...