Main points:

twelve. 1 . The idea of conversions in translation

10. installment payments on your Grammatical changes in translation

10. a few. Lexical and semantic changes in translation 10. 1 . The notion of transformations in translation

Translation is a great informational procedure, which means that ubersetzungsprogramm should give information transmitted as totally as possible. Yet , this can be achieved only if specific structural and semantic alterations are presented. These improvements, which are brought on by lexical and grammatical differences between dialects (and generally - by differences involving the respective cultures), are called conversions in translation. Grammatical transformations in translation

Most copy writers on the subject distinguish between the following grammatical transformations in translation: 1 ) Transposition is actually a change in the order of words in phrases and sentences, which can be often caused by the strength differences in expressing the topic and the rheme in different different languages. E. g.: A girl moved into the room – У кімнату увійшла дівчина. An old person was sitting down by the aspect of the road – Біля краю дороги сидів старий. 2 . Grammatical replacement can be substitution in the word owned by one part of speech with a word owned by another element of speech (morphological replacement) or substitution of one syntactical construction by another one (syntactical replacement). E. g.: He is a great runner - Bin гарно бігає.

I could see her standing up there – Я бачив, що вона там стояла. The Times wrote editorially (... ) – У передовій статті газета Таймс писала.. 3. Addition is used to compensate for semantic or grammatical losses and frequently accompanies changement and grammatical replacement. Elizabeth. g.: His wife have been beautiful – Його дружина колись( або у молодості) була красунею. workers of most industries – робітники усіх галузей. four. Omission is known as a transformation opposing to addition and is combined with the aim to stop redundant data. E. g.: the right to rest and leisure – право на відпочинок. equality in trade and commerce – рівні права у галузі торгівлі (... ) regardless of age, education, knowledge or history – незалежно від віку, освіти та досвіду роботи. 10, several. Lexical and semantic conversions in translation The transformations listed below have been completely labelled while lexical and semantic since lexical adjustments often are caused by the need to conform the meaning towards the semantic peculiarities of the focus on culture. The majority of the writers about them single out the next transformations on this kind: 1 . Generalization of meanings, which can be substitution from the source language words (phrases) of a narrow meaning by the target terminology words (phrases) of a genera] (broader) meaning. E. g.: My baby is 18 months - Моїй дитині півтора року. This car costs 17 hundred pounds - Ця машина коштує тисячу сімсот фунтів; The soldiers walked in the ankle-deep dust -- Солдати йшли no коліно у пилюці; wrist watch- наручний годинник.

installment payments on your Differentiation of meanings is caused by the simple fact that many English language words with broad semantics do not have direct equivalents in Ukrainian. In such instances dictionaries offer a number of symbolism that only somewhat cover the meaning of the origin language word and translators have to choose one of the variants, which fits the circumstance best of all. Therefore affection may be rendered because щиросердя biit not essential as любов, прихильність, симпатія; challenge - as проблема, нагальне завдання (питання) but not only while виклик', lasting - since безперервний, непохитний, придатний; обгрунтований, остаточно визначений but not simply as as сталий, усталений, стійкий, etc . 2 . Concretization (substantiation) of meanings is usually substitution of thesoùrce vocabulary words (phrases) with a generic meaning by the target vocabulary words (phrases) with a more specific (narrow) meaning. Concretization is often combined with differentiation. E. g.: Run for the obama administration -...


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